From: The fatal shore by Robert Hughes
Aboriginals had many tribes,
Sydney: Iora tribe
700 sq, miles from Pittwater to Botany Bay, Cut In half by Sydney Harbour Tribal subgroups north and South Cameragal and Kadigal Cameragal and Walumedegal Along north shore of the harbour Booragegal
On Bradley head Kadigal around what is now Circular Quay and Botanical g
Dario people lived past Windsor and Hawkesbury river area,
2300 sq miles from coast north of Iora to Katoomba/Blackheath in the south
Tarawal. Territory began on South shore of Botany Bay.
Iora lived mainly on fish, shellfish and oysters. The shells, middens, were heaped in front of caves. Hunting weapons: spear, stone axe, fire sticks. Hunting spears had only one spring: fire hardened wood, flint, bone, shark tooth. Knocked birds out of trees with stones. Or laid on ground ,asleep, holding fish. Bird came. Caught bird! Picked snakes up by tail and whipped head to kill. Shimmied up trees to get honey, marsupials, set fires then clubbed possums, snakes, lizards, goannas as they fled. Often used caves to live in.
Used fish oil to deter mosquitoes.
Women twisted fishing lines from pounded bark fibre and made hooks from turban shells. They fished in pairs. The men speared the fish that the women brought in on the lines.
The spear had 4 prongs of wallaby or bird bone ground and set in gum resin.
Canoes made of bark. Ends tied with bark twine and seams caulked with gum. Fires burnt on wet clay on bottom of the boat to cook their catch.
Manly Cove named after aboriginal manliness and bearing.
Women had no rights. Wives often given for favours, swapped with other tribesmen to facilitate brotherhood. Used to prevent war with other tribes. Used in corroboree too. Pregnancy did not shield women from violent use. Too many children impeded nomadic life. Women had to carry their own children. They breastfed babies 2/3 years. Adult food not suitable for children. Abortions common by herbs or violence. Deformed children killed. Orphans killed.
Nomadic life had nomadic religion. No churches or sacred places. The landscape itself as they walked was their religion.
Wiradjuri Nation: Beginning to Early Settlement, P.1
Caves at Hands on the Rocks, an Aboriginal sacred place
Aboriginal tribes in Mudgee belonged to the Wiradjuri Nation, which extended from the Blue Mountain eastern ranges to the Lachlan and Murrumbidgee rivers in the west, with the Murray River forming the southern border and the Wellington plains and hills the northern border. About 7,000 Wiradjuri people lived in the Bathurst region, when it became the European ruling area and the first town settled west of the Blue Mountains.
Sources for The Wiradjuri Nation:
Healing the Land: A closer look at the needs of the Australian reconciliation movement Vol 1 by Judith Monticone. Published by Healing the Land 1999.
The Mudgee Guardian January 25, 2001
Historical information given to author by local historian Laura Wallis and local resident Doug Rochester.
Apple Tree Flat: A Gateway to Mudgee